This text is dedicated to the English Arabic translation; it can lay the sunshine on the definition of translation, the significance of English Arabic translation, the issue idioms impose to translators, the qualities of a very good translator and the need for translation normally.
Translation in Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed's phrases is: "the motion or strategy of delivering from one language into one other. It’s the expression or rendering of sense of phrases, sentences, and passages and so forth from one language into one other." Ulm-ul-Qur'an, Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed, IAS
The Columbia Encyclopedia defines translation because the rendering of a textual content into one other language.
Katharine Barnwell (1986, p. eight) .defines it as follows: Translation is re-telling, as precisely as potential, the that means of the unique message in a method that’s pure within the language into which the interpretation is being made.
Translation is way more than the interpretation of the that means of a textual content in a single language and the manufacturing of a brand new, equal textual content in one other language, or the substitution of the phrases of 1 language with the phrases of one other language, or the rendering of that means of a textual content or in any way in a single language into one other, it’s the bridge of appreciation and understanding amongst individuals of various cultural teams, it’s the technique of communication amongst totally different teams of individuals, the technique of cultural alternate, the technique of preserving cultural heritage of any nation, the technique of forming ties and friendships amongst totally different teams of individuals, and the technique of understanding and peace.
Human beings are in spite of everything not dwelling alone and, each human being has the necessity and want to find out about each other, man tries to study what different individuals are doing, how they’re dwelling, and the way they’ve lived. We wish to know, aside from our totally different ethnicity, shade, language, and tradition, whether or not we share the identical understanding of affection, ardour, sorrow, aspiration, sympathy, jealousy and plenty of different respects of human nature. So so long as the will to exists, translation would be the solely bridge throughout which our goals are reached and our want realized.
Within the basic sense, the objective of translation is to construct bridges amongst totally different teams of individuals, however the objective of translation within the theoretical sense is to ascertain a relationship of equivalence between the supply and the goal language; it ought to be sure that each texts talk the identical message.
There was debate as as to if translation is an artwork, a science, or a Talent. I feel Translation is a mix of all of them. It’s a science within the sense that it wants full information of the construction, grammar, semantics, and syntax and normally the make-up of the 2 languages involved. It’s an artwork because it requires inventive expertise to reconstruct the unique textual content within the type of a product that’s presentable to the reader who shouldn’t be imagined to be conversant in the unique. Additionally it is a ability, as a result of it requires consideration to element the that means and a radical understanding of the connection between syntax and semantics, coupled with intensive cultural background and the power to supply the interpretation of one thing that has no equal within the goal language.
Additionally being a human ability, it allows human beings to alternate concepts and ideas whatever the totally different languages they use. Man is endowed with the power to convey his emotions and expertise to others by language. For this strategy of communication man acquired each spoken language and the written language, however when human beings unfold over the earth, their languages differed and so they wanted a method by which they’ll talk and work together with every others. Thus necessity for translation to convey one's emotions and experiences into the opposite language was felt.
Generally we ask ourselves, why is translation between English and Arabic necessary? Each Arabic and English are of the world nice languages, within the guide 'The Unfold of English, on web page 77 the author says: "the nice languages of right now are languages of empire, previous and current. Solely two, Mandarin Chinese language and Russian, proceed as languages of administration inside single, ethno linguistically various states. The others -Arabic, English, French, and Spanish-are imperial legacies, having survived the disintegration of the empires that fostered them. "
Arabic language is among the nice world languages. there have been nice languages of nice empires that didn’t survive as a fantastic language, like Turkish as an example, after we evaluate Turkish with Arabic, we discover out that Arabic survived the disintegration of the Arab Islamic empire and it continues to be one of many nice languages of the world until right now, whereas the Turkish language which was the language of administration and authority within the center east, Balkans, and totally different elements of the world that was beneath the Ottoman rule for a thousand years, however Turkish within the phrases of Fishman on web page 77 within the guide 'The Unfold of English "' flowed again to Anatolia with the collapse of the ottoman empire '. However these phrases are usually not 100% correct as a result of Turkish is spoken throughout Turkey and in Northern Cyprus, not solely in anatolia which is barely part of Turkey. Additionally Turkish minorities within the former Soviet Union republics, Bulgaria, Russia, Greece, and Romania use Turkish as their mom tongue. Furthermore the languages of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, are all branches of the Turkic language household. But, no denying that Turkish language misplaced plenty of its significance after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
Returning to Arabic, it is among the six official languages adopted in The United Nations. Arabic is the language of a wealthy tradition and civilization courting again many centuries; it was the language of Muhammad, the Messenger and Prophet of Allah (Allah is the Arabic phrase for God), and it’s the language of the Holy Qura'an. It has produced nice figures corresponding to Averroes (Ibn-Roshd), the medieval Aristotelian thinker; Ibn Khaldun, the primary social historian; and Khalil Jibran. Between the eighth and the fifteenth centuries, the quantity of literary, scholarly and scientific guide manufacturing in Arabic and the extent of city literacy amongst readers of Arabic have been the best the world had ever identified to that point. Islamic artists have used Arabic script as their principal artwork type for hundreds of years; the fantastic thing about their work will probably be revealed to anybody by the research of Arabic. Arabic is a member of the Semitic group of languages, intently associated to Hebrew and Aramaic, the language the Christ spoke. Furthermore, Arabic is extensively spoken; complete audio system of Arabic exceed 350 million.
In keeping with the Wikipedia encyclopedia, Arabic was additionally a serious car of tradition, particularly in science, arithmetic and philosophy in the course of the center ages, that’s the reason many European languages have additionally borrowed quite a few phrases from it.
Pamela J.Farris says in her guide Language arts on web page 99
"English has borrowed from Arabic algebra, sweet, lemon, orange, sugar, and journal."
Not solely these phrases English borrowed from Arabic, however there are lots of of different phrases borrowed from Arabic, there are some lots of of the phrases English borrowed from Arabic in Al Mawrid English-Arabic dictionary, corresponding to hurricane which implies in Arabic 7HA'F, Spinach three ( 'F., and sesame which implies in Arabic 3E3E.
So Arabic being one of many world nice languages makes translation from and into that language crucial, particularly English Arabic translation.
Little question that English is a world language; these days it’s the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It’s listed because the official or co-official language of quite a few nations .In addition to Arabic, it is among the six official languages within the United Nations
Consequently, the information of the English language is among the most necessary instruments in attaining scientific and technological information; furthermore it’s a device of communication between nations, totally different cultural teams, varied corporations and organizations, communities and pals.
Translation is the device to utilize the brand new expertise and science. Science information coupled with a number of languages and cultures are more and more necessary in an increasing world financial system and world welfare. It’s clear that Britain and the USA are the forefront of latest concepts in science and expertise. USA has pioneered in all fields of expertise and science; accomplishments of Britain and US expertise are in English, so it is rather important to know English to utilize such expertise and science.
Additionally Political relationships, wars, and conflicts make translation so necessary to have entry to what’s going on in numerous elements of the world, particularly Arabic English translation, as English is the language of the massive powers of the world, and the Arab area is the theatre, the place important occasions happen at current.
No denying that English is the cornerstone of the world media, many necessary information sources are in English, on web page 34 of the guide The Unfold of English the author says: "English newspapers in non English mother-tongue nations are one other indication of the world extensive standing of English ".
If one is aware of English, one can learn the information and factors of views of a number of writers across the globe, by doing so one can develop his information, and get a broader outlook on the environment, and to have a look at points with a broader perspective. For my part, figuring out any language is a global passport particularly English.
English can also be the language of communication, with the unfold of web, English gave the impression to be the language of communication, lots of of thousands and thousands of various races talk with every others by way of the web in English, thus English helps to strengthen ties, and make pals amongst totally different cultural teams of individuals on totally different spots of our planet.
So being the language of science expertise and communication, within the age of the web, English unfold so extensively, there has by no means been a language so extensively unfold in so brief a time as English.
As talked about above, each Arabic and English are nice world languages, so translation between this pair of languages is necessary and important due to the various causes talked about beforehand.
Translation has been and continues to be the technique of cultural and information alternate amongst individuals all through historical past, and the technique of preserving cultural heritage.
Because the Islamic Arabic Empire unfold, the Arabic language and, certainly, tradition was enriched by contacts with different civilizations: Greeks, Persians, Copts, Romans, Indians and Chinese language. Through the ninth and tenth centuries, a fantastic translation motion, centered in Baghdad, was in pressure, through which many historic scientific and philosophical tracts have been transposed from historic languages, particularly Greek, into Arabic. Many have been enhanced by the brand new knowledge prompt by Arab thinkers; different texts have been merely preserved, solely to re-emerge in Europe in the course of the Renaissance.
Fashionable European languages, corresponding to Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and English owe a fantastic debt to Arabic. The English language itself accommodates many phrases borrowed from Arabic: algebra, alchemy, admiral, genius, ghoul, mare sherbet, soda and plenty of others. "
By the technique of translation cultural heritage is preserved and new civilizations advanced and flourished; the western civilization as an example, was established on the Arabic and Islamic civilization; scientific books have been translated from Arabic into totally different European languages, and it was the core for the present western civilization.
Within the guide of "Muslim Contributions to World Civilization" On web page 118 we’ll discover that, "From 1154 AC to the sixteenth century, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim students from Western Europe and Spain translated books from Arabic into Latin within the Toledo Academy established by Alfonso, Sabio the Clever. The translations have been then distributed to educational facilities in Europe, the place they turned the premise of the Renaissance, the revival of information in Europe. "
Stanwood Cobb says: "Europe was indebted for all of its beginnings in alchemy and chemistry to the chemical science of the Arabs, which reached them by translation of Arabic works into Latin. On this science, as in different arts and sciences which they practiced, they developed an goal and experimental methodology versus the purely speculative methodology of the Greeks. "
"The science of algebra owes a lot to gifted mathematicians of the
Islamic period. Its very identify proves the magnitude of this debt, for the identify itself is Arabic, al gebr, "a binding collectively."
"Along with the volumes of Greek science, many scientific works of the Arabs-Avicenna, Averroes, and Rhazes in particular-were translated."
So English-Arabic translation has been and continues to be of nice significance, the causes prior to now and current are solely totally different. At present, it’s well-known that English Arabic translation is more and more turning into a subject of a lot concern and significance today. Oil, strategic location, historical past of the Islamic and totally different different civilizations that befell within the Arabic area, and the present occasions within the Center East on the Arab aspect and the western want to own the oil and dominate the area on the Western aspect, contribute to this significance. This paper highlights the significance of English Arabic translation, primarily the interpretation of the 2 phrase English idioms into Arabic; as English language is filled with idioms native audio system of English use plenty of idioms and expressions in on a regular basis conversations, books, newspapers, magazines, TV exhibits on the Web as a result of idioms add shade to the language, however on the identical time, idioms are obscure as a result of their that means shouldn’t be what it seems to be at first sight. This imposes a serious problem to translators from English into Arabic.
For instance within the Telegraph newspaper dated 19/09/2006 one of many headlines reads "Police patrols at church buildings stepped up in Pope Row"
The Idiom 'step up is used on this article, the Idiom Connection defines the idiom' step up 'as follows "rise to the next or extra necessary place, be promoted"
Al Mawrid dictionary interprets the idiom 'step up' as J2J / – J6'9A- J2 / '/ – J * 6'9A- JF / A9- J * B / E
Within the context of the earlier article, the idiom 'step up' may be translated as – J2 / '/, it’s the translation of the that means of the idiom.
A Second instance in The Sunday Instances dated April 30, 2006, the Idiom 'again down' is used within the following articles:
Iran's psychopath in chief, by Israel
"Britain, France, Germany and America hope to go a decision on the United Nations Safety Council this week mandating Iran to droop its work on uranium enrichment. If Iran refuses to again down, the safety council might impose focused sanctions."
Additionally within the Mail guardian on-line dated 07 November 2005 we’ll discover the headline
'Blair to again down on anti-terror legal guidelines'
British Prime Minister Tony Blair reluctantly accepted on Monday that he must again down on proposed anti-terror legal guidelines that might allow police to carry individuals for as much as 90 days with out charging them.
House Secretary Charles Clarke, saying what quantities to a climbdown, mentioned, nevertheless, that the brand new time restrict wouldn’t be as brief because the 28 days sought by critics of the brand new Terrorism Invoice, which faces a parliamentary vote on Wednesday.
"We don’t wish to compromise on the 90 days in any respect. Will probably be a compromise with this nation's safety," mentioned Blair at his month-to-month Downing Road press convention, the place he held out hope that he might but minimise the impression.
American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms – defines the idiom '' again down as' Reverse one's upward course, descend. For instance, When she noticed the wasps' nest on the roof, she rapidly backed down the ladder. This literal utilization often refers to one thing one has climbed, corresponding to a ladder or mountain. [Mid-1800s]
Al Mawrid dictionary interprets the idiom 'again down' as –J * F'2D 9F E7D (
Additionally 9F J * .DJ 9F – J * 1 ', 9 is a correct translation
Within the earlier articles, it may be translated as 9F J * .DJ 9F – J * 1 ', 9, and it’s the translation of the that means of the idiom.
Idioms are one of many components that makes translation stay a human exercise; though makes an attempt have been made to automate and computerize the interpretation of pure language texts, or to make use of computer systems as an assist to translation, however translation stays primarily a human exercise that wants ability, intelligence, human feeling that retains the life and spirit of the unique language to the translated textual content, idioms pose a problem to any translation program. Since plenty of idioms cannot be translated actually.
The suitable understanding of Idioms is the important thing to have a very good translation from English into Arabic. English is filled with idioms; native audio system of English use plenty of idioms and expressions of their speech and writing, in different phrases, native audio system of English use idioms on a regular basis. Idioms are the grease that makes language stream, however on the identical time idioms are obscure as a result of an idiom is "An expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the phrases that make it up." Webster's On-line Dictionary, however some are simpler to guess once they have some affiliation with the unique that means of the person phrases. So the translator ought to pay attention to the idioms.
The idiom 'chilly toes' which the Cambridge Superior Learners Dictionary defines as: "to all of a sudden develop into too frightened to do one thing you had deliberate to do, particularly one thing necessary corresponding to getting married", whereas the American Heritage Dictionary defines the idiom 'chilly toes 'as
"Fearfulness or timidity stopping the completion of a plan of action".
It’s utilized in an article within the guardian newspaper on Saturday March 25, 2006 as follows:
'Iraq hostages' have been saved by rift amongst kidnappers'
o Guards received chilly toes after American was shot
o Returning Kember 'didn’t say due to rescuers'
Jonathan Steele in Amman, Ewen MacAskill and Richard Norton-Taylor
Saturday March 25, 2006
The British hostage Norman Kember and his two Canadian colleagues owe their freedom to a rift amongst their Iraqi kidnappers, a western safety supply near the rescue operation mentioned yesterday.
This idiom used within the earlier article may be translated as AB / 'F' D-E'three DA9D four & E'- FB5'F 'D4,' 9G #H 'D + B) DA9D four & E', the interpretation is the paraphrase of the idiom based on definitions given above. So the appropriate understanding of idioms is the important thing to translate properly.
An idiom is realized and used as a single unit of language; and needs to be translated in the identical method. To translate idioms the translator, to begin with wants to acknowledge idioms, perceive them, know the tradition from which the idiom comes, the origin, the ambiance through which it’s used, then the translator ought to do his / her finest, at first to seek out an equal or a corresponding idiom within the goal language that retains the flavour of the unique, if there may be not such corresponding idiom or phrase the translator analyzes the idiom and interprets the that means of the idiom in phrases that hold the colour and taste of the idiom within the supply language
Each language is idiomatic; every language has a sure algorithm that govern the way in which phrases are put collectively to specific info, concepts and emotions. The foundations and their exceptions are distinctive to the language, regardless of potential similarities with different languages. On this sense, a language is all the time idiomatic. Inside this basic consideration, we often consider 'idioms' as distinctive phrases: we use them to specific one thing that different, extra basic sentences cannot specific simply as properly. You will need to study idioms to have the ability to talk properly. They’re additionally attention-grabbing to review due to the perception they offer us into the language and the individuals who use them. These expressions originate within the historical past, literature, faith, and traditions typical of a sure neighborhood. For that reason, idioms reveal a lot of the mind-set of a neighborhood.
Since idiomatic expressions are so regularly encountered in each spoken and written discourse, they require particular consideration in translation
the Oxford Superior Learner's Dictionary defines 'idiom' as: a bunch of phrases whose that means is totally different from the meanings of the person phrases :. This implies even when one is aware of the that means of every phrase; one could not perceive the idiom itself. So we cannot translate the idioms appropriately except we perceive their that means. If we consider the idiom 'New blood and translate it into Arabic (/ E, / J /) phrase by phrase, (/ E, / J /) is usually utilized in Arabic to imply younger individuals. On one hand, it may be seen as an equal, then again typically it’s arduous to guess that the expression truly means 'individuals with plenty of power or recent concepts who’re introduced into a corporation with a purpose to enhance it' as outlined in Cambridge superior Learner's dictionary, as in F- * ',' DJ / E, / J / – it will possibly imply the necessity for brand spanking new blood in a hospital as an example, however typically it may be misunderstood.
Based mostly on the earlier definition in Cambridge superior Learner's Dictionary, the suitable translation for this idiom is # four.'5 EDJ &) ( 'D7'B) H' D-JHJ) H 'D # AC'1-' AC'1 H 7'B '*, / J /) .The interpretation here’s a paraphrase.
As a matter of truth, the literal translation of an idiom is usually absurd or comical. The idiom 'Again burner' actually interprets into Arabic as '' D-'1B 'D.DAJ'
The literal translation in Arabic sounds comical. The Dictionary of English Idioms & Idiomatic Expressions defines it as follows: If a difficulty is on the again burner, it’s being given low precedence is 'then the appropriate translation is -'D EF 9 / E' D'G * E'E -BDJD 'D'GEJ)
typically The picture created by the literal that means of an idiom is comedian however typically it will possibly assist to do not forget that idiom.
Right here is an instance of English idioms that may be simply understood from the photographs they evoke. The English idiom double confronted interprets actually in Arabic as 0H H, GJF- (with two faces) in Arabic. So the picture created by this idiom helps us to recollect and perceive it. So we are able to translate it as EF'AB 'hypocrite' in Arabic- or -E. '/ 9 deceiver (in Arabic), which will probably be an ample translation. The picture created by the idiom double confronted could make us consider an individual with two faces, which implies hypocrite .Regardless that utilizing the photographs of the literal translation is an efficient and enjoyable approach to study English idioms, the literal translation alone is deceiving in lots of instances
The actual that means of the English idiom needs to be realized in context to be appropriately understood. It’s essential to review idioms inside sentences. A correct instance makes the that means and the use clear. For instance the idiom sitting duck which implies 'a simple goal', after we study this idiom in a sentence as in "His arguments have been so easy, she was capable of knock them down like sitting geese." Will probably be simple to know that the idiom means' a simple goal 'and translate it into Arabic adequately, if we translate it actually in Arabic it might be (7),' D3) which doesn’t make sense in Arabic, however the ample translation is a paraphrase translation of the idiom which is G / A 3GD
Translation of concepts and that means from one language to a different leaves a lot freedom to the translator, however translation of idioms doesn’t want solely translation of concepts and that means, the translator ought to hold the impact idioms give to the language as potential because the translator can. To translate idioms word-for-word "translation is insufficient and complicated, To translate idioms properly, the translator should acknowledge idioms to be idioms, the translator should perceive the objectives and intents of the writer of the unique work; and the context through which idioms are used, then s / he ought to perceive the that means of the idioms, s / he ought to look it up in dictionaries, search on the net, ask native audio system, and perceive the therapeutic massage of the idiom and in what context it’s used. it’s good to discover a comparable idiom in Arabic that carries the identical that means of the English idiom, if the translator cannot discover so it’s good to parse the idiom aside into its that means and translate the that means.
Katharine Barnwell says: The duty of the translator is to translate the that means of the message, relatively than the phrases.
Bible Translation, Katharine Barnwell, 1986, p. 12.
So as to have a very good translation, there have to be a very good translator, who needs to be fluent within the two languages he seeks to translate between. He should perceive the language which he’s translating from, in addition to the language through which he’s translating the work into. Furthermore, a very good translator should particularly be a very good communicator within the goal language. A very good translator should have the information, ability and expertise on this enterprise; In actual fact the translator has a really critical accountability to not change the that means in any method. He have to be cautious to not add something to the that means, or to depart any a part of the that means. Really the duty of translator is tougher than the author himself, the author is free to specific his concepts and views in the way in which he sees appropriate and within the vocabulary he likes, however the translator confines himself to the phrases the author used and he have to be cautious to not add something to the that means, or to depart any a part of the that means.
From what has been talked about above, it’s apparent that translation is the bridge of appreciation, love and friendship amongst nations, it’s essential for progress and prosperity .By the technique of translation new civilizations advanced, the western civilization was established on the Arabic and islamic civilization; scientific, books have been translated from Arabic into Latin, and it was the premise for the western civilization.
English Arabic translation has been and continues to be of nice significance, as a result of each languages are nice world languages, furthermore present occasions, wars, conflicts and struggles in our world add to this significance; English is the language of massive powers and Arabic is the language of the area the place conflicts happen for a lot of causes talked about beforehand
Idioms pose a problem to translators from English into Arabic. English is filled with idioms which cannot be understood from the person phrases .A translator of English idioms into Arabic wants good information of the 2 languages and a very good information of each cultures .Idioms mirror tradition traditions, cultural identities and historical past of any nation. They provide us perception into historical past, tradition, traditions, and values, morals. So idioms mirror our frequent humanity by language.