The state of Ukraine was born solely after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. No such state existed in historical past previous to 1991, because it was at all times part of different state/empire — firstly of the Russian Empire, then of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and after that it existed within the capability of a republic within the Soviet Union. However, Russians and Ukrainians are of the identical race, the Slavic Race; their languages are additionally very a lot comparable (we, the foreigners, who know Russian, perceive Ukrainian, too, as much as 80%, though can not converse, learn or write, — the writer), in addition to there may be nearly no variations amongst their tradition, mentality, spiritual habits and many others.
The phrase ‘Ukraine’ has developed after having modified in spelling and pronunciation— the unique phrase for it in Russian is ‘Ukraina’, means ‘border’. This phrase was used generally within the Center Ages to imply the south-west a part of Russia, nevertheless it was principally used to point the navy personnel working in that area. The official identify of that area was not even ‘Ukraina’, however ‘Malarussia’, means ‘Small Russia’.
The area was known as ‘Malarussia’ because of the native spoken Russian, as it’s totally different to some extent from the Russian, spoken in Moscow. However, curiously, the literary Russian Language took its current form in that area itself, primarily in Kiev, the current capital of Ukraine. The extra vital reality right here is that the muse of the Russian Empire was laid down in Kiev itself. In 988 A D the Russian King Vladimir Sviatoslavich based the Russian Empire in Kiev by bringing the entire Slavic Race of Russian Land beneath the identical Russian Orthodoxy and placing all the massive and small kingdoms beneath one Emperor. From this standpoint Kiev isn’t solely the primary capital of Russian Empire, but in addition the origin of Russian Civilization.
However Kiev misplaced its political significance in addition to affect in direction of the tip of XII Century, for Moscow grew to become the brand new capital of the Russian Empire. At the moment one other empire, parallel to the Russian Empire centering Moscow was based in Lithuania. Though the emperors of the Lithuanian Empire have been principally Russians and Russian was the official language there, the overall inclination of Lithuania is at all times in direction of the West. In consequence Lithuania and Poland based a federal state in 1569 A D, — the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lvov, one other vital metropolis of current Ukraine, together with Kiev, got here beneath this Commonwealth. The inhabitants of Kiev and Lvov have been, little doubt, Russians, and their department of Christianity was Russian Orthodoxy, however the Poles, the Lithuanians in addition to the Emperor have been Catholics. In consequence the Russians grew to become the Second Class Residents of the Commonwealth. The Russians have been ordered to be transformed into catholicity. They have been ordered to not migrate to Russian Empire too.
The Commonwealth didn’t restrict itself on issuing orders solely; in 1596 A D the Russians have been forcibly transformed into catholicity and the monks of the Russian Orthodoxy have been murdered. In repercussion to it, ‘Orthodox Brotherhood’ was fashioned among the many Russians who escaped the conversion.
There have been solely 3 ways left earlier than the Russians: both to transform themselves into catholicity, or to flee to the Russian Empire on the East, or to combat for his or her particular existence and rights in their very own homeland. They selected the third one, and warfare was declared in 1648 A D beneath the management of Bogdan Khmelnitsky. After six years of horrible warfare, a Treaty was signed between the Commonwealth and the Russian Empire. Kiev was included into Russian Empire, however Lvov was left.
The Commonwealth grew to become weak in direction of the tip of XVIII Century, and in 1772 A D a lot of its land was divided amongst Prussian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires. Lvov was put beneath the Austro-Hungarian Empire. And Poland grew to become nearly non-existent in 1795 A D.
The Russians grew to become the lone responsible individuals within the eyes of the Poles for his or her sick destiny. They put all their ache and anger, hatred and hostility on the Russians. The Poles, little doubt, imagined for re-establishing the as soon as nice Polish Empire, however because it was not doable, they deliberate for taking away the already included in Russian Empire space of Poland: since that space was not beneath Poland at the moment, the identical shouldn’t be beneath Russia too! The Poles began a marketing campaign claiming that the inhabitants of the world included in Russia weren’t Russians, however Ukrainians! Meaning, the Ukrainians have been a separate nation with their ‘personal language and tradition’, and that’s the reason Russia had no rights over the occupied land: Russia had been occupying the land illegally!
In truth, it’s the Poles who invented the bogus concepts of ‘Ukrainian Nation’, ‘Ukrainian Language and Tradition’ and many others. In 1795 A D the Polish mental Jan Potocki first named the Malarussian area in addition to the spoken Russian of that space as ‘Ukraine’ and ‘Ukrainian Language’ respectively. In 1801 A D one other Polish mental Tadeusz Czacki clearly talked about in his ebook that the inhabitants of Malarussia weren’t Russians, however one other nation. He forwarded a ‘concept’ claiming that the Malarussians migrated to that area from the areas of Volga, Ural and many others. in VII century itself, however couldn’t produce any proof or documentation in assist of it.
That unproven ‘concept’ might need been left unnoticed and forgotten in the midst of time, however some incidents occurred in Russian Empire at the moment, fairly, helped it to develop. The Russian Emperor (Tsar) Alexander I thought-about the Polish Nobles extra educated and environment friendly than their Russian counterparts. In consequence the Poles captured all of the vital posts within the Empire: they have been the heads of Schooling System and Academy of Science. They took the entire Schooling System of Malarussia into their arms and included such issues within the syllabus: Malarussia was at all times with the West (means Europe, and, that’s the reason, it’s civilized); the inhabitants weren’t Russians, however one other nation; the Russians have been Asians (means barbarians) and aggressors. They included even such unbelievable issues: Russia and Ukraine have been engaged in warfare for five to six occasions, whereas such wars by no means occurred and there was even no scope for that!
However the effort of the Polish Nobles produced its fruits: lies written in books generally are thought-about to be the reality. Malarussian inhabitant Nikolay Kostomarov fashioned a company among the many intellectuals and academics of Kiev. The group introduced that Ukraine is neither Russia nor Malarussia, however a separate nation, and there lived a separate nation, — the Ukrainian Nation. The dialect of Malarussia was declared as full-flagged language, and a brand new script by mixing the Russian and Roman was created in hurry. Even a brand new dictionary was written by gathering the phrases of the Malarussian dialect: the ‘Dictionary of Ukrainian Language’!
The Russian dominated space together with Lvov, as soon as taken from Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and put beneath the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was known as Galicia. The Malarussian intellectuals have been engaged spreading ‘Ukrainian Language’ by publishing books and information papers in ‘Ukrainian’. Publishing was accomplished not in Malarussia, however in Galicia.
The Galician Russians have been known as ‘Rusins’ or ‘Rutens’, they usually have been already transformed into catholicity. For the reason that Russians beneath the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth have been thought-about to be the Second Class Residents and have been being suppressed by the Poles, the Galician Russians, particularly the Nobles, devoted themselves to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. They even fought with arms in arms on behalf of the Austro-Hungarian Emperor in the course of the Polish and Hungarian Revolts in 1809 and 1848 A D respectively. The Emperor gave them to put on a stripe having yellow and blue colours put in parallel method. Curiously, the current Nationwide Flag of Ukraine has additionally yellow and blue colours put in parallel method!
Though the dedication of the Rutens in direction of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was demonstrated, the Emperor didn’t took them into full confidence, for having the identical language and tradition, they might have any time shifted their dedication in direction of the Russian Empire. To ascertain management over them, the Emperor formulated some situations for them in 1848 A D: if the Rutens wished to get assist and assist from the Emperor, they need to take into account themselves not Russians, however a separate and full-flagged nation, they usually should keep away from citizenship of the Russian Empire. As informed earlier, books and information papers have been being printed in ‘Ukrainian’ in Galicia. Now a brand new identify for this ‘separate and full-flagged nation’ grew to become important, and the Emperor accepted the phrase ‘Ukrainian’ for them.
Divisions, in fact, occurred among the many ‘Rutens’ on this subject: some by no means needed to surrender the Russian Root, however others needed to change into ‘Ukrainians’. However, it additionally got here to mild that ‘Ukrainian’ isn’t a full-flagged language, however a combination of the phrases and expressions of Russian in addition to Polish Languages and Malarussian-Galician Dialect.
The increasing technique of the ‘Ukrainian Language’ grew to become painful for the overall Rutens too, for they might not perceive, why the Russian phrases have been cleverly being changed by the native phrases. Ultimately they got here to conclusion that the method of “Ukrainization’ was nothing however a lie, forgery and unfaithfulness in direction of the origin.
Austro-Hungarian Empire, however, forcibly forwarded the method of formation of the ‘New Nation’. Writers and journalists, who didn’t wish to use the ‘New Language’ have been labeled as ‘Spies of Moscow’. Course supplies have been printed in ‘Ukrainian’, and sad with it academics, had been sacked. ‘Ukrainization’ was in full swing. In 1892 A D the ‘Ukrainian Nationalist’ Joseph Manshilovsky wrote in his ebook: ‘… Ukrainism means forgetting the previous, feeling disgrace for the Russian Root and Historical past… The precise Russian traits needs to be thrown away, and all efforts needs to be made for spreading ‘Ukrainism’…
The Austro-Hungarian Empire obtained the prospect to destroy the opponents of “Ukrainism’ throughout World Battle I. In 1914, there have been 2000 prisoners of warfare from the Russian Empire within the jails of Galicia. Together with these prisoners of warfare, a lot of academics, medical doctors, even farmers of Galicia, who opposed ‘Ukrainism’, have been murdered. 300 monks of the Russian Orthodoxy have been murdered solely on the idea of doubt that they might have maintained secret sympathy in direction of the Orthodoxy! Many harmless individuals, who spoke in Russian, or had Russian Names, or saved of their homes books and information papers written in Russian, have been captured, labeling them as ‘Spies of Moscow’, after which murdered. These incidents are nonetheless remaining as Large Black Spots in Austrian Historical past.
The extra painful reality right here is that the so known as Ukrainian Nationalists, too, took half in these inhuman actions: they themselves hanged and shot their very own mates, brothers, even family members! Thus Ukrainian Nationalism was born even earlier than the Ukrainian Nation was based!
The actual function of these incidents occurred in Austria might be understood from the assertion of the then International Minister Leopold Berchtold. In November, 1914, he introduced: ‘… our actual purpose on this warfare is to make Russia weak for an extended interval, if not for eternally. If we win, we’ll create Sovereign Ukraine by separating Malarussia from Russia… ‘
With the purpose of making Sovereign Ukraine, Austria organized for writing the 10-parts ‘Historical past of Ukraine and Ukrainian Nation’ by Mikhail Grushevsky, who escaped to Galicia from the Russian Empire. Grushevsky talked about on this ‘Historical past’ that there have been three Russias: the primary was established in Kiev, the second in Moscow, and third one in Lithuania; the inhabitants of the Kievian Russia have been the ‘Ukrainians’. The Ruten college students of Galicia studied this ‘Historical past’, and began believing that no matter was written in it was reality: they began pondering that they weren’t Russians, however a separate nation, and as an alternative of Russia, their inclination began rising in direction of the West. And Grushevsky was not solely ‘honored’ with an enormous sum of money but in addition was offered a giant home in Kiev for scripting this ‘Historical past’. Curiously, in 1991, the Schooling Division of the Ukrainian Authorities acknowledged the ‘Historical past’ of Grushevsky!
It needs to be talked about right here that Ukrainian Nationalism and German Fascism went hand in hand from the start. Malarussian inhabitant and Ukrainian Nationalist Nikolai Mikhnovsky forwarded such slogans: ‘Ukraine — for Ukrainians solely’, ‘Russians of Malarussia and Lithuania, Poles, Hungarians, Romanians and Jews — our enemies’! Dmitry Dontsov, one other Ukrainian Nationalist, who was arrested 3 times for anti-tsarist actions in Russia and escaped to Galicia to keep away from the fourth arrest, headed the ‘Ukraine Liberation Motion’ beneath the private supervision of the Austrian Emperor. He, too, wrote in 1926: ‘… until the very best ambition for creating personal nation doesn’t seem, until the theorems usually are not transformed into axioms and dogmas, until the shyness isn’t transformed into brutality, — there is not going to be any Ukraine!… The primary precept of Ukrainian Nationalism is: Ukraine is Europe (means civilized), Russia is Asia (means barbarian), and that’s the reason friendship between them is inconceivable… ‘.
It wants point out that fascism is being seen in all of the so known as anti-Russian actions going down in present-day Ukraine. 50% of the inhabitants of the Donetsk District, which is located within the japanese a part of Ukraine, are Russians, and that’s the reason the district is now no extra ‘Ukrainian’ for the Ukrainian folks. And they’re even able to destroy the district utterly! In repercussion to it, the Russians of the district are being compelled to combat with the Ukrainian Armed Power for their very own survival. Satirically, the identical factor occurred in 1648 A D in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. And America, together with the West, are spreading propaganda in the entire world that Russia is exerting aggression in Ukraine by serving to the ‘rebels’ with arms and ammunitions!
Thus the Austrian Empire prolonged full-flagged assist and assist for constructing so known as Ukrainian Nationalism. The detached perspective of the Russian Empire in direction of the Rutens might need additionally occurred assist: the Galician Russians obtained neither monetary assist nor political assist from Russia.
Nonetheless, ‘Ukrainian Nationalism’ was nonetheless in international land, however after formation of the Soviet Union, Ukrainism began getting official assist and assist inside the Union. Galicia, nonetheless, was nonetheless a international land, however Ukrainian Soviet Socialistic Republic was based in the remainder of Malarussia on the idea of already established ‘Ukrainism’.
In 1921 Stalin, the then Minister for the roles associated to Nations, introduced: ‘… if there are nonetheless some Russian components within the cities of the Ukrainian Republic, then they are going to be positively changed step-by-step with Ukrainian components… ‘. And in 1923, the Communist Social gathering of the Ukrainian Republic introduced the beginning of Ukrainization: manufacturing system, training system, printing media, theatre and many others. have been ukrainized. By 1929, Ukrainian Language had been made medium of instruction in additional than 80% of the Major Faculties, nearly 55% of the Center Faculties and 10% of the Institutes and Universities. And by 1930, 90% of the Information Papers and 80% of the Journals of the Ukrainian Republic began publishing in Ukrainian Language, whereas the Malarussian residents didn’t hear about ‘Ukraine’ and ‘Ukrainian Language’ even 15 years previous to it!
Some so known as Ukrainian Nationalists of Galicia, too, got here to Ukraine after formation of the Republic. The native folks have been fed with doubt and disrespect in direction of them. They stated: ‘We really feel ourselves Russians and we hate the Ukrainians in the identical approach as we hate the German fascists. So we request the Russian Federation to connect us to it’.
The Galician Ukrainian Nationalists, nonetheless, had nonetheless been making an attempt to discovered ‘Sovereign Ukraine’. In 1929, the Group of the Ukrainian Nationalists introduced the institution of ‘Sovereign Ukraine’ on the idea of ‘One Nation and One Social gathering’. In the direction of the tip of 30s, they grew to become nearer to the German Fascists, and took half within the Coaching Applications of Gestapo and German Spies on conducting terrorist actions. They thought that after occupying it, the Fascists would hand over the Ukrainian Republic to them and they’d be capable of discovered the ‘Sovereign Ukraine’. The Fascists, nonetheless, didn’t have such intention, fairly they deliberate for changing the entire Soviet Union, together with the Ukrainian Republic, into Colony. The Ukrainian Nationalists, collaborating with the Fascists, nonetheless, saved signature of inhumanity and brutality within the historical past: to start with of World Battle II, they exterminated Russians, Poles, Jews and Armenians in Lvov. On 22 March, 1943, they burnt down a village known as ‘Khatyn’ in Belarus. They demonstrated their inhumanity and brutality of their highest grade in Volynia of Poland: 70,000 Poles, together with kids, previous individuals and ladies, had been exterminated. Nonetheless, hundreds of residents from the Ukrainian Republic had been combating with the Fascists and getting wounded and killed at the moment, for it was the Soviet Union which acknowledged Ukrainism formally for the primary time in historical past.
Had the Soviet Union not prolonged assist and assist, the Ukrainian Tradition would have change into extinct. The Union may present the sense of safety and stability to all; this very sense no extra exists after its dissolution. That’s the reason the sense of insecurity and instability is now dominating all the sooner republics, together with Ukraine. America, together with the West, tried to create the sense of insecurity and instability within the Soviet Union throughout Chilly Battle occasions. Their purpose in it was clear: to separate Ukraine from the Union, for, together with low-cost labor drive and fertile land, Ukraine has huge reserve of pure assets, — these are important for growth of America and the West. The precise geographic place of Ukraine can be vital right here, for the entire world might be saved beneath management from this place. That’s the reason monetary in addition to political assist and assist had been being prolonged to the Ukrainian Nationalist Organizations primarily based in America, Europe and Canada. On the similar time, they’d been spreading propaganda that the Soviet Union was exerting ‘aggression’ in Ukraine. At current, too, they’re spreading the identical propaganda, however have changed ‘Soviet Union’ with ‘Russia’!
Ukraine is a synthetic state having no root of its personal, for the foundation of its language and tradition in addition to civilization and historical past is left in Russia, and that’s the reason, for its personal survival, there is just one approach left earlier than the nation — enmity with Russia! In consequence, together with America and the West, Ukraine, too, is compelled to maintain the propaganda of ‘Russian Aggression’ and ‘Russian Concern’ operating. Such propaganda was in motion on the time of latest inclusion of Crimea into Russia too, though Crimea was by no means part of Malarussia: in 1954 solely, on the idea of some political calculations, Nikita Khrushchev, the then Chairman of Soviet Union, connected the commercially and strategically vital Sevastopol and Crimea to the Ukrainian Republic.
Improvement of self by exploiting, oppressing in addition to depriving others, — these are the primary purpose and function of America and the West. They’re now behaving in such a way, as if they’re very a lot involved in regards to the current state of affairs in Ukraine, which has been ‘created by Russia’. They’re time and again repeating the phrases ‘Democracy’ and ‘Improvement’ in context to Ukraine, however, in precise, they don’t seem to be in any respect involved whether or not there may be democracy or growth in Ukraine. They wish to do enterprise in Ukraine, not for the advantage of the nation, however for their very own, and doing enterprise is less complicated if there may be democracy within the nation. Democracy may also assist them in using the huge pure assets, fertile land in addition to a budget labor drive of Ukraine for their very own profit and growth.
The earlier Ukraine will perceive these items, and as an alternative of America and the West, the earlier it’ll come nearer to Russia, with which the nation shares widespread linguistic, cultural and non secular root in addition to blood relation, the earlier the nation will obtain safety and stability, and the earlier it’ll change into capable of preserve its personal existence.